On August 30, 1887 at noon inhabitants of the Perm province observed very unusual natural occurrence – falling of a large meteorite. The huge incandescent space body flew on a firmament from the northeast on the southwest and blew up over the village of Tabora near Okhansk, without having done anybody harm. Scrap of a meteorite were scattered on all the district. A little most lumps and the majority of shallow scrap of a meteorite was taken from funnels near the village.
Falling of a meteorite was described by the managing director of the Ochersky plant Fedor Budishchev in a note to the chief of the Ekaterinburg railway station D.I.Lobanov:
“On August 18, 1887 about one o’clock in the afternoon the race car was watched the cemetery of the Taborinsky village at the Kama River in the Okhansky County of the Perm province. Flight of a race car was followed by the deafening crash similar a little to the crash published at a navertyvaniye of an iron chain on a pig-iron pulley, or on the sound which is formed at fall of the iron sheet on a pig-iron floor. According to the testimony of two eyewitnesses, the race car had the form of an oat sheaf of brown color; before falling on the earth there was a crushing short blow, like volley from the gun, and over the Kama River, on a napraleniya to Okhansku, the strip which is also accompanied with a crash flashed”.
The Okhansky meteorite collapsed soon after entry into the atmosphere and reached the earth in the form of scrap, having covered the neighborhood of the village with a stone rain. The volost clerk described falling of one of scrap according to peasants:
“They noticed flight head over heels of some subject similar to an oat small group of straw color behind which the white smoke curled”.
“… in the same day I examined the meteorite which is taken out from a hole, – Budishchev wrote further, – the Most interesting parts of a meteorite were shattered in a hole and trampled by the mass of the people, many scrap are sorted on pockets of drinkable dealers, shopkeepers and peasants. Many pieces of a meteorite already drank in water which allegedly expel from patients any human illnesses including the devils who are found on superstition of some, in wombs human”.
Today it is not possible to establish the precise mass of an asteroid. Estimates differ from 200 to 500 tons. Scrap a little more than 145 kg are collected today.
The research of a situation of falling of the Okhansky meteorite and its detailed description was executed by the Mole Pyotr Ivanovich, the geologist, professor of the Kazan university:
“… Flight of this meteorite was noticed in many points of Okhansky, Perm and Kungur Counties of the Perm province. So, for example, this phenomenon was observed in Perm. Here, at 12 hours 40 minutes p.m., in silent, clear, sunny day on August 18 some noticed that “to the south of a zenith” falls in sloping situation, in the direction with In on Z, the larger shining weight leaving for itself an enormous sheaf of sparks and a stream of white smoke in the form of a cloud.
In 2 — 3 minutes after that in Perm heard a deaf peal of a thunder. Flight of this weight in the same direction was seen in. Ashes, about the Art. Sylva of the Ural railroad, and in many places between Perm and Okhansk.
The same phenomenon and at the same time was seen by peasants of page. The Christmas Kungur County, hearing the strong thunderclap at the time of disappearance of fiery weight. The same phenomenon was noticed from the steamship… In the village of Chastinskom thunderous blows … about 121/2 o’clock in the afternoon were heard at this time, over Okhansk the strong thunderous blow, similar to the strong gun shot, being followed by rumble sounded …
Here, in situ falling, the stone was found an oblong form … Tentative weight of this stone was 1681 гр. On the same day… the small stone fell in 2 versts to the SKID from the city, on so-called Popovka…
This meteorite went deep into the earth very little, all was covered with black bark and had about 800 гр. to weight. At the same time the stone about fell. Halves, in 21/2 — 3 beliefs. to the West from Okhansk. Flight and falling it were seen by peasants of of Kopylovki (in verst from the city) and. The halves working in fields about these villages…
It was covered with black bark and weighed more than 1700 grams. The fourth meteorite was found by peasants in the pine wood, in 21/2 — 3 versts to YuYuZ from Okhansk, in verst from Popovki, in 120 — 150 sazhens from river Ocher, on the surface of the sandy road lying on this wood … In the same area, in 21/2 — 3 versts to the South from the city, on so-called Polom, is even closer to river to Ocher, on August 29, during my survey of places of falling of meteorites, absolutely integral meteorite was found …
Weight of this meteorite of 1724 гр. I pass to the meteorite which fell near page now. Tabora, being versts in 15 — 16 from Okhansk on a forward direction, up Kam, on the right coast of this river…
Here peasants of this village from whom the following data are received by me were eyewitnesses of flight and falling. According to their stories, in the first one o’clock in the afternoon… over Camps the crushing thunderous blow which caused shudder of window frames and made an overwhelming impression on people and animals sounded.
Some noticed at this time that over Kama the big fiery sphere leaving for itself a sheaf of sparks and the tape of white smoke which was spirally coiling and carried away by an airflow to the West flew by with a terrible crash; that from this sphere the brilliant part which flew by in the direction to Okhansku separated, and his body fell to the winter field in verst to ZYuZ from the village.
The peasants who were at this time in the field saw that the fiery mass of straw-colored color flew in the sloping direction with In on Z and fell to the ground sazhens in 200 from them, having lifted at the same time a big cloud of dust … According to the order of the okhansky district district police officer, on August 19 this stone was taken from the earth by the Tabora volost authorities, in the presence of the huge mass of locals and various strangers, and on the same day is brought to Okhansk …
Here I found a hole in 2 арш. 7 fish-traps. lengths, about 2 арш. width and 13/4 арш. depths. But originally this hole had, of course, other sizes, namely: width of its upper was about 11/2 арш., and in lower — it is slightly less; depth 2 арш. 3 fish-traps. in the SKID-ache of a part and 2 арш. in SV-noy speak rapidly it. From the upper face of a stone to the Earth’s surface was 1 арш. 10 vershoks. The stone lay in the most deep, the SKID-ache of a part of a hole, вдавшись in YUZ-nuyu its wall, in a hollow of this wall, as if under a small canopy.
Between lateral areas of a stone and walls of a hole there was a free space (to 2 fish-traps.), which the hand and thanks to which it was possible conveniently обрыть a stone freely entered, without touching a surface it. At a breaking it became clear that the stone was covered with black bark not only from above, but also from sides; that it uglovatoovalny form, and upper egoostrougolny side; that diameter it about 10 vershoks and that all it was imbued with numerous cracks in various directions…
The persons participating in extraction of a stone from the earth believe that approximately it weighed poods 15 (about 2451/2 kg). The pieces which escaped from plunder in Camps were weighed in Okhansk, and their total load turned out 186 500 гр. I could collect in Okhansk, Camps and Perm and to Kazan to deliver more narrow only 148 300 гр. Thus 6 meteorites are found in the Okhansky County. But there is a basis to think that it eventually in the neighborhood of Okhansk, in a strip between Camps and Ocher’s ostium, will be found some more meteorites which are not noticed still”.
The largest scrap were taken from the funnel formed as a result of falling in the place at the village of Tabora therefore the meteorite is called still Tabora, the Tabora Village.
D. I. Mendeleyev in the fall of 1887 at a meeting of the Russian physical and chemical society made the message on Okhansky aerolite. Students of Peterbursky university under the leadership of D. I. Mendeleyev made a chemical analysis of collected exemplars. They determined the content of metal iron in two ways: on volume basis Hydrogenium emitted under action for an acid meteorite, and by weight the particles taken by a magnet. Subsequently results of the analysis were counted by P. N. Chirvinsky the geosubway invented by it – a chemical method.
The meteorite Okhansk falls into with HII to an ordinary chondritis. It it is intensive брекчирован and it is presented by random mix poor in iron magnesian хондр, their scrap and fragments of a matrix rich with metal phases and troility (FeS). Contain in matrix and hondrovy material similar on structure оливин, orthopyroxene, клинопироксен, the minor minerals (chromite, vitlokit, etc.) and residual interstitsionny glass on which composition the matrix and hondra significantly differ. Iron in a matrix is in the basic in a native state in the form of a kamasit to whom are subordinated tenit and troilit. The matrix is rather rich with chromite and vitlokity.
In sulphidic and metal matrix substance the smallest selections of native silicon are found. Existence in them also carbon allows to assume formation of association of native silicon with moissanite. To the same early stage of evolution of hondritovy magmatism of a mozhnootnesta and diamond of which the association with moissanite is characteristic.
Crystallization of minerals in the hondrakh happened in two stages: the first is characterized by existence of the phenocrystals of an olivin, uniform in structure, which are reactionary replaced with pyroxenes in the normal sequence (оливин → orthopyroxene → клинопироксен); the second — formation of glassy main massykolosnikovy and simplektitovy structure. The first stage reflects a sluggish crystallization in deep conditions, the second — hardening in the mode of bystry cooling (at eruption of magmas on the surface of maternal planets). The structure хондр an ordinary chondritis Okhansk is non-uniform HII: pyroxene-olivinovye, piroksenovy, plagioklazovy; sometimes in the form of double hondr (a hondr in a hondra). Several copies of the Okhansky meteorite by total load more than 145 kg are collected. The main weight delivered by P. I. Krotov is stored in the Kazan university, chips are stored in the National museum of Ocher, the Perm regional museum of local lore, and also in the museums and private collections of Russia and the whole world.
Archival data on a vypadka of meteorolit on August 18, 1887 near Okhansk
Family of the peasant Pyotr Alexandrov Pleshkov together with other women in August 18 were behind collecting fungi in the area under the name “Popovka” in 2 1/2; versts from Okhansk. Upon return told that they at noon, услыхав in air some strong noise and an extraordinary crash “on the wood” from something fallen, were frightened, ran out on the road and hasty left home. The next day Pleshkov reported to the Territorial justice about such opportunity. The chairman of a justice M. N. Zhakov, A. S. Zhakova and the member Upravy I. V. Vologdin went on the specified area and according to Pleshkov’ instructions the small aerolite which buried in a glade level with the turf weighing about 2 1/2 was found; Fong. In the same area, but further on 1 1/2; versts, similar are found two aerolite. One petty-bourgeois son Ivan with a Feklistny weight up to 4 1/3 Fong., and another peasants Mikhayl Vyatkin and Semyon Silkin is powerful to 2 pounds. The first aerolite was taken away by the mining engineer Mikvits, and the last two are presented to the district police officer.
Of August 21 for No. 617 the Pritykinsky Volost board notified the Territorial Justice that the 18th of this Augustus at about noon “in air there was the strong blow, like a gun shot, and after that several time (about 2 minutes) the thunder peal was heard as if. In the same time the peasant of the village of the Half, local volost, Andrey Andreyev Kalachnikov noticed that in zimovy crops about this village (in 3 versts from Okhansk) something fell from above; and when it with the peasant Pavel Pavlov Sosnin came running on that place, found a small stone weighing about 5 Fong., which obverse with sulfur black, and in absolutely gray color”.
A half of this aerolite is presented to the Justice and then by the associate professor of. Mole it is taken away in the Kazan University, and another remained at Volost board and too then is selected by the district police officer.
December 31, 1887.
It is known that the Okhansky meteorite blew up in air, having dropped out a meteoric rain, and did not leave a big crater. There are no falling left in situ and the meteorite. And nevertheless the place of falling of a large splinter of the Okhansky meteorite described by eyewitnesses and precisely known — on a slope of the high hill in 2 km from the village of Tabora, to the right of the road conducting from this village in Ocher — it is declared by a geological nature sanctuary of Perm Krai.