Tristan da Cunha – the manned archipelago which is most removed in the world which resident population in September, 2016 constituted 256 people. The whole ten years (from 1909 to 1919) didn’t swim away any ship here until the frigate Yarmouth stopped to inform islanders on results of World War I.
The small archipelago is located in the middle of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. On it there is no airport, but several times a year soda small fishing boats from South Africa look. Earlier the cargo-and-passenger ship connected the archipelago to Saint Elena’s island, the next manned earth located in 2000 km to the North, but since 2006 it appeared only twice. You can constitute idea of remoteness of the island when you see how many times you shall change scale on Google maps to see some of the next continents.
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is the British territory, and their inhabitants – the British citizens though the queen’s leg never set foot on this land.
All inhabitants of Tristan go in for agricultural industry, each family owns small herd and fishing boats. The earth is in public property and each family the site on potato fields is allocated. In two miles to the south of the main settlement on fields the beautiful view opens, and here inhabitants constructed the lodges for rest.
In the middle of December islanders gather in the valley of potato fields on the date of the Hairstyle of Sheep, noting the beginning of a summer season. Each inhabitant of the island, including children and old men, makes a feasible contribution to agricultural industry. Adult inhabitants of the island also have paid state positions or work in household sector.
The quantity of animals is strictly limited. Each family is allowed to have no more than two cows. It becomes for the purpose of preserving pastures and prevention of stratification on the rich and the poor. Under the local law, any newcomer from the outside world can’t lodge here or buy the land, only if it doesn’t purchase all island entirely.
On the island there is one police officer who is helped by three special constables. There are no political parties or labor unions. The island the recommendation replaced time in three years consisting from eight the chosen and three appointed members manages. Health care is provided with British government, and one doctor and five nurses work at the island.
Inhabitants gain income in the basic from catching of crayfish and spiny lobsters – these two types of Crustacea are even represented on Tristan’s flag. Also small income is brought in by sale to collectors of the whole world of stamps and coins with Tristan’s images.
The most remote and the oldest in the world British почтовВ 2005 the island received the British postal index (TDCU 1ZZ) that to inhabitants was to make easier orders online, but there is no covering of cellular communication. From 1998 to 2006 the house Internet was available, but it was such expensive and such slow (connection of 64 kb via satellite phone) that inhabitants refused it.
Now on the island there is an Internet cafe which by means of the small antenna on a roof provides to users bandwidth in 3072 kb.y a box
During World War II Britain used the island as confidential base for observation of weather and submarines of Nazis. The television appeared on the island in the mid-eighties: on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays records from the continent were broadcast. The live broadcast began only in 2001 and now there are only two channels – “BBC one” and “BBC two”.
Tristan’s children age from 4 to 16 years attend the school, unique on the island. It consists of five classrooms, a computer office and an office of “science and work”.
One of visitors of the island so spoke of the Saint school of Maria represented above:
All children of Tristan attend this school which was in the depressing condition. The British government is interested in education of these children a little, and local teachers are insufficiently qualified. Besides, among inhabitants there is secret resistance to the best education caused by desire to survive. If children get a good education, and then will go to university on the continent, they, perhaps, any more will never return back and the island gradually will become deserted and will become extinct.
The future of settlers of Tristana-da-Kunya several times for all his history hung by a thread. Though the island was opened by Portuguese in 1506, the first permanent resident Johnathan Lambert lodged here only in 1810. It and three other men announced islands the property and called Islands of Updating. However by 1812 three from these four already died. The survived Thomas Carry also became the first farmer.
By 1816 British annexed islands, presumably not to allow French to use the archipelago as base for transaction on release of Napoleon Bonaparte containing on Saint Elena’s island.
Soon here whalers, but when in 1869 the Suez Canal opened lodged, Tristan appeared in the distance from sea lanes since the ships didn’t need a stop during the long travel any more.
In 1906 after several difficult years and especially severe winter almost all inhabitants decided to leave the island. The British government suggested to evacuate the settlement completely, and some people refused evacuation and remained. Islanders lived ten years without contact with the outside world until on the island the ship came to tell them that World War I ended. After that within twelve years on a skeleton only six ships came. You can imagine what important event for inhabitants was to see the ship on the horizon?
For some time in the sixties the volcanic archipelago Tristan-da-Kunya completely became deserted. When in 1961 the volcano Peak of the Queen Maria woke up, all population (264 persons) was evacuated by small fishing boats and departured on the desert island Naytingeyl where they were picked up then by the Dutch passenger ship and brought to Britain. Arrival of islanders created a furor in the British press and they were lodged in the camp of royal air forces. A year later expedition was directed to inspect the damages put with a volcano which found the settlement almost untouched. The majority of families with joy returned on the island in 1963.
This island as if stopped in time in the isolation. Here seldom there are tourists, but inhabitants keep hotel for accidental research groups and observers for the birds who are swimming away on the island by the passing ships. The last passenger ship visited Tristan’s coast in 2011. Photos which you see were made by the last visitors of the outside world.
Photos are made by Brian Gratvike who visited Tristan in 2012 by the National Geographic Explorer ship, the UltraPanavision company by the ship Saint Elena in 2011 and the photographer Moritz Hitsch during his Atlantic Odyssey in 2006.