This week it became known about the program “national technology initiative”, developed by Agency of strategic initiatives on behalf of President Vladimir Putin. In her 2025-2035 years plan “implementation of the interface, quantum computing, teleportation, phenomena that resemble natural ones to use for data transmission. On research associated with quantum teleportation, says.<url>.
The conclusions of quantum mechanics, describing the microworld, it is difficult to correlate with the ideas of the classical world described by classical mechanics. If the position and momentum of classical particle can be simultaneously measured in quantum case it is possible to learn only the probability of finding particles in a particular state. Furthermore, quantum theory States: when two systems are confusing (more about that below), measuring the state of one of them instantly affects the other.
Albert Einstein did not agree with the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this regard, he said that “God does not play dice” (the Danish physicist Niels Bohr later said that not Einstein to decide what to do with God). A German scientist did not accept the uncertainty inherent in the microcosm and considered true to the classic determinism. The Creator of the General theory of relativity believed that the description of the microworld quantum mechanics does not account for some hidden variables, without which quantum theory itself is incomplete.
For 90 years the concepts of quantum mechanics (1920s), researchers were able to show that Einstein was wrong: in quantum mechanics, most likely, no hidden parameters. This means that its theoretical insights are of direct relevance to reality, which, in turn, depends on its perception. This theory arise far-reaching practical consequences. They are connected first of all with quantum computers and quantum cryptography.
In a conventional computer information is represented using bits, which can take only one of two values: 0 or 1. In a quantum computer the concept of (classical) bits is generalized to quantum bits (qubit), and except for one of the two values — 0 or 1 — a qubit can take on an infinite number of values, which is a quantum superposition of the basis States 0 and 1.
As such conditions can be used a pair of values of some quantum characteristics of a particle (atom, electron or photon), for example, the spin orientation. It is believed that mass production of such computers will lead to a substantial progress in the computation; quantum devices are orders of magnitude beyond the capabilities of modern computing systems.
For mass storage (physical media) can be used, for example, a special superconducting solid materials, particles which can be in particular excited (quantum) state, identified as the state of the qubit. To manage such material (and quantum States) using, for example, laser radiation.
“Spooky action at a distance” between Bob and Alice
The major difficulty in using quantum computers are reduced to their high sensitivity to environmental effects that can irreversibly change the quantum state. Therefore, before the work of a quantum system are adjusted (calibrated) for a long time; professionals need to consider in setting up dozens of options. In addition, the work of a quantum computer involves the use of special quantum algorithms, tailored for your specific device.
Quantum cryptography is a method of encryption of information (it security) with the help of quantum entanglement and special quantum protocols. In the long term this should lead to job creation uncrackable algorithms random number generation, and even the quantum of money.
Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in which the quantum States of particles (such as electron spin or photon polarization), spaced at a distance from each other, not be mutually independent. The procedure of measuring the state of one particle changes the state of the other — thus the state of one particle can be transferred to another even if it is removed from it, — that is quantum teleportation and one of the main differences of the microcosm from the macrocosm with which he did not agree with Einstein.
In a typical experiment on quantum entanglement spaced at a distance of interacting agents — Alice and Bob each have one particle (photon or electron) of a pair of entangled. Measurement of particles one of the agents — for example, Alice is correlated with the state of the other, although Alice and Bob do not know in advance about the manipulation of each other.
This means that the particles somehow keep information about each other, and not to share it, say, at the speed of light using any known fundamental interactions. Einstein called it “spooky action at a distance”. Entangled particles violate the principle of legality, according to which the state of an object can affect only his inner circle, so it is believed that quantum mechanics, local realism (principle of locality) is not executed.
The current quantum of research moving from the theoretical to the practical channel. Records of quantum teleportation is 102 km (optical fiber) and 143 kilometers (by air). China has announced its intention to carry out quantum teleportation between the Earth and the cosmos to a distance of 1.2 thousand kilometers. All this will allow interested parties a reliable and secure communication channel.
The device D-Wave Systems
Today more and more large companies are interested in development and purchase of quantum computers. The most popular device of its kind to D-Wave 2X created by the canadian company D-Wave Systems. Currently, D-Wave Systems is the world’s only firm creating and selling quantum computers. The interest in D-Wave 2X showed Google and NASA.
As shown by tests with specialized software, held D-Wave Systems, the device is up to 600 times faster and solves the optimization problem compared to a classical computer (excluding the time of data input and output). If we consider loading and unloading information, D-Wave outperforms 2X regular computer 15 times. D-Wave 2X often criticized those who have much more modest results.
Already created a prototype quantum computer that allows scalability in the implementation of the quantum Shor’s algorithm offers a method of decomposition of natural number on simple multipliers. It is used when reading information from Bank cards and other sensitive operations. Maximum security procedures will preserve confidentiality and to save a lot of money — those who have them, and those who are planning to invest in scientific studies.