Gravitational waves can be the key to discovering new dimensions

If we want to find additional dimensions in our Universe, that is, the existence of what the so-called string theory tries to explain to us, then we should turn our attention to gravitational waves. Because they can be the key to their discovery, say physicists.

This is how you can briefly describe the idea of ​​a new hypothesis, which tries to find the answer to the unresolved puzzle of physics: why does gravity in fact turn out to be weaker than other fundamental forces of our universe? According to the new hypothesis, the “leakage” of gravity leads just to other dimensions that we have yet to discover.

“The probability of the existence of other dimensions has been discussed for a long time and from completely different points of view,” says Emilian Dudas from the Polytechnic School in Paris.

“Gravitational waves, in turn, can become the key to the discovery of these additional dimensions.”

Now widely accepted is the idea of ​​four dimensions – three spatial (length, width, height) and one time (time). However, our knowledge of how matter behaves on the smallest scale contains many gaps, which could be filled with additional six dimensions. This is the theory of string theory, according to which everything in the universe could be understood and explained much easier if we agreed with the idea of ​​the existence of 10 dimensions. In addition, string theory is considered as the most likely way to finally fill the gaps between classical and quantum physicists, becoming the basis for the future theory of quantum gravity.

According to this theory, the smallest particles of matter that we are able to detect, quarks, in fact, can consist of even smaller particles – one-dimensional energy fibers, their behavior resembling vibrating strings. These “strings” are very interesting for scientists for one simple reason. There is an opinion that they will be able to do what our modern physics is not able to do, namely: accurately describe all the most fundamental forces known to us, including gravity, electromagnetism and nuclear forces. They are also able to help us understand why the universe is still expanding. However, the main (and perhaps the only significant) problem is that, for their mathematical justification, they (strings) require a minimum of 10 measurements. And the trouble is that we have not even approached yet to open one single additional.

Nevertheless, the physicists Gustavo Lucena-Gomez and David Andriot of the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Germany are convinced that we have the hope of discovering these additional dimensions. And this hope is gravitational waves, long ago predicted by the great Einstein and only recently confirmed by modern scientists.

Gravitational waves became one of the most hotly debated topics of last year when physicists from LIGO – two giant observatories located in the US states of Louisiana and California – announced that they first discovered direct evidence for the existence of a so-called ripple of space-time, which is about 100 Years ago predicted Einstein. These waves travel through space-time at the speed of light and appear as a result of some of the most catastrophic events in the universe, such as the fusion of black holes or the explosions of stars. They are able to pass and thereby influence all known measurements in the universe and, most likely, even on those that we are not yet able to detect.

“If there are additional dimensions in the universe, it would be logical to assume that gravitational waves will exist in all these dimensions,” comments Gomez.

Gomez and Andriot deduced a mathematical model describing the expected effects of gravitational waves on the measurements, and identified two key factors. First, according to the researchers, additional measurements can manifest themselves due to high-frequency gravitational waves. Secondly, in different dimensions, gravitational waves should have different effects on the stretching of the “tissue” of the Universe.

According to the researchers, in the first case detection would require the presence of equipment thousands of times more sensitive than the same LIGO.

“We have not yet encountered astrophysical processes creating gravitational waves with a frequency much higher than 1000 Hz, therefore, in the presence of an appropriate super-powerful and sensitive detector, we would immediately understand what we are witnessing. The definition of frequencies of this level could hint at the discovery of a new physics. ”

And the second case will require physicists to study the anomalous changes in the effect on the space-time of the “ordinary gravitational waves” (that is, those that we can determine now) and those that would be available for gravitational waves from other dimensions.

“The deformation of space-time would be represented in a certain, distinctive from the rest of the form,” scientists say.

“The deformation of space-time would be represented in a certain, distinctive from the rest of the form,” scientists say.

Newsweek scientist Hannah Osborne is more optimistic about the possibility of discovering additional measurements due to their influence on gravitational waves. In her opinion, a detector with a sensitivity level of three LIGO laboratories working as a single unit will be required. Osborne believes that “such technologies will be available in the near future.”

The existence of other dimensions can be the answer of modern physics, which scientists have long been looking for. Other dimensions could lead to the creation of a unified theory of the universe that would reconcile the theory of the quantum field with the general principles of relativity.

The opinion of the probability of the existence of additional dimensions is shared by many scientists. For example, theoretical physicist Bobby Acharya of the Royal College of London believes that the universe is much more complicated than it seems at first glance, and anything can hide in it. He believes in additional dimensions, but he realizes that the current level of technology does not allow them to be detected.

“To create and redistribute gravitational waves into other dimensions, you will need a colossal amount of energy. Even if you manage to create waves that penetrate into other dimensions, the scale will be so small that the frequency of gravitational waves in this case will be very high, much higher than the current detection capabilities of the LIGO gravitational wave detector. “