Physicists have discovered a new theory of everything

Scientists from the Max Planck Society for Gravitational Physics Institute (Germany) and the University of Warsaw (Poland) have expanded the Standard Model of Particle Physics to include gravity. A new theoretical construction predicts the existence of particles with unusual properties.

Scientists from the Max Planck Society for Gravitational Physics Institute (Germany) and the University of Warsaw (Poland) have expanded the Standard Model of Particle Physics to include gravity. A new theoretical construction, which may turn out to be the final Theory of Everything, predicts the existence of particles with unusual properties. This is reported in a press release on Phys.org.

The properties of known elementary particles are described by the Standard Model, which is confirmed experimentally, but cannot explain a number of physical phenomena (for example, the origin of mass, neutrino oscillations and the origin of dark mass). In addition, the Standard Model describes electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, but does not include gravity. In other words, it is inconsistent with the general theory of relativity when considering phenomena such as the Big Bang or the existence of a black hole event horizon.

To solve this problem, scientists have proposed various hypothetical principles relating to the so-called New Physics. According to one of them, supersymmetry, each known elementary particle corresponds to a superpartner heavier in mass. Thus, hypothetical fermions correspond to known bosons, and bosons correspond to known fermions. When combining the principles of the general theory of relativity and supersymmetry, some contradictions that arise when trying to incorporate gravity into quantum mechanics disappear. This physical theory is called supergravity. According to some scientists, supergravity is the Theory of Everything, which describes all known fundamental interactions.

However, when trying to merge supergravity with the Standard Model, a problem arose. The predicted values ​​of the charge of elementary particles shifted by 1/6 in comparison with the observed values ​​(the theory predicted that the electron should have a charge not -1, but 5/6). To solve this problem, scientists modified the symmetry group U (1), due to which it is possible to fit the electromagnetic interaction into supersymmetry. This allowed us to obtain symmetries for the electromagnetic U (1) and strong interaction SU (3), known from the Standard Model. But this modification did not take into account the SU (2) symmetry for weak interactions.

In the new work, scientists have shown that weak interaction can be inscribed into the theory through the infinite symmetry group E10. According to the researchers, the use of this mathematical tool instead of the SU (2) symmetry accurately predicts the number of fermions in the Standard Model and the electric charges of the particles. She explains why the search for particles of New Physics at the Large Hadron Collider was not successful. In addition, it predicts the existence of particles with completely new properties, some of which can be detected with the help of modern equipment.