The hypothesis of the English naturalist and geologist John Michell about the existence of objects inaccessible to observation due to the impossibility of escape from them (1784), now finds confirmation in dozens of astronomical observations. At the moment, scientists have discovered about a thousand objects in the universe, which they called black holes. They are a region of space-time, the gravitational attraction of which is so great that even objects moving at the speed of light, including photons themselves, can not leave it.
True, at the moment, all evidence for the existence of black holes is indirect, which, from the point of view of many scientists, does not at all diminish their significance. If only direct evidence were to be true, then it would be necessary to recognize that the Sun revolves around the Earth, and not vice versa. It has long been understood that black holes can form after the explosion of massive stars. Now, astronomers are observing such processes in space by tens. As scientists suppose, almost every galaxy (and their order of hundreds of billions) contains in its center a massive black hole with a mass of millions and billions of solar masses. For example, in the center of our Milky Way galaxy there is a black hole with a mass of several million solar masses.
However, the observational data point more and more definitely to the existence of so-called primary black holes that were formed so early that their appearance is difficult to explain in a standard way. The fact is that the formation of a massive black hole needs at least a billion years. The universe was born 13.8 billion years ago, it turns out that the oldest black hole must be at least a billion years from the “birth of the universe.” However, black holes that were formed 700 million years after the formation of the universe, and they are very massive, are billions of solar masses.
In addition, the existence of a non-stellar path for the formation of black holes is also indicated by the gravitational waves discovered in 2016. They were obtained from the merger of two massive black holes, which means that these objects were once nearby. The probability of such massive black holes to coexist closely from each other is small in terms of the scenario of their stellar origin.
It turns out that the existence of primary black holes must be explained somehow differently. The approach developed at the National Research Nuclear University “MEPI” (the research group of the professor at the Department of Elementary Particle Physics Sergey Rubin) makes it possible to explain the appearance of primary black holes without rejecting the parallel stellar path of formation.
“Imagine that the universe is filled with a hypothetical field,” says Professor Sergei Rubin, “If the concept of a field is introduced, it is usually talked about its potential energy, that is, if a field is given, then what energy does it have. the energy also changed its meaning, that is, the potential energy (potential) depends on the magnitude of this field.No one knows the shape of this potential.But if we assume that it has two minima, it may turn out that due to fluctuations of the early expanding universe insome part of the space the field will jump over the “hillock-maximum” and slide to the minimum.
As is known, all energy tends to a minimum in the presence of friction. That is, the main space tends to one minimum, and in a small area – it tends to the other. And this small area has a very high energy, which can turn into a black hole. ”
Unlike many other models for the formation of primary black holes, the variant proposed by the physicists of the NNIU MEPhI under the guidance of Sergei Rubin suggests that they are formed by clusters (clusters). Calculations showed that if in one spatial region there is a chance to jump through the “hillock-maximum”, then in the neighboring regions this probability is quite large. Now scientists are working on variants of the evolution of clusters of primary black holes after their birth.
“The most interesting thing is what happens to these clusters later,” explains Sergei Rubin, “It is clear that the area that passed through the maximum of the first will have the largest mass.” We do not know exactly what kind of mass it is, what exactly the distribution of black holes will be like This, as well as the subsequent dynamics, depends on the parameters of the model and the initial conditions.As soon as the primary black holes were formed, they begin to interact with each other, collide, merge. In addition, those black holes that were on the periphery begin z to occupy the general expansion of space and fly away from the cluster forever, that is, clusters begin to live their inner life, cook in the “soup” of the early universe.In short, this dynamics is complex, and we are now creating code that will analyze all these transformations ” .
Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to test the theory of Sergey Rubin with the help of an accelerator experiment-it is impossible to obtain in the laboratory such an amount of energy that would be sufficient to form a black hole. However, new data on observations of early black holes will help in the future to answer questions about their occurrence.