What we have learned about Solar system in 2016

About 30 people of spacecrafts made by hands in our Solar system collect information on our planet and its vicinities now. Every year proofs which support some theories gather, pushing out others on a roadside. Before you some of the most interesting facts which we managed to learn about our Solar system in 2016.

Jupiter and Saturn are thrown into us comets

In 1994 the whole world observed how Schoomaker’s comet — Levi 9 crashed into Jupiter and “has left a mark of the size of Earth which remained the whole year”. Then astronomers joyfully exchanged words that Jupiter protects us from comets and asteroids.

Thanks to the massive gravitational field, Jupiter as believed, attracts the majority of these threats before they reach Earth. But recently the research has shown that the absolutely return can be true, and all this idea of “a board of Jupiter” isn’t right.

Modeling in Laboratory of jet propulsion of NASA in Pasadena has shown that Jupiter and Saturn, most likely, shower space fragments in internal Solar system and into orbits which bring them to a way of Earth. Then giant planets abandon us with comets and asteroids.

Good news are that comets which bombarded Earth at stages of her development could “bring volatiles from an outer Solar System, lives, necessary for education”.

Pluton has liquid water

On the suburb of the known Solar system the spacecraft of NASA “New horizons” opens strange things about the far-out dwarf planet Pluto. First of all the fact that Pluto has a liquid ocean is interesting.

Existence of lines of a change and the analysis of a big crater under the name Satellite Planum have led researchers to model which shows that Pluto has the liquid ocean 100 kilometers thick with the content of salts in 30% under an ice cover 300 kilometers thick. He is approximately same salty as the Dead Sea.

If the ocean of Pluto was in the course of freezing, then the planet had to contract. But, seemingly, it extends. Scientists suspect that in a kernel there was enough radioactivity to give though is a little warm. Thick layers of exotic surface ices act as the insulator, and possibly present ammonia acts as antifreeze.

Kernels of the Neptune and Uranium are wrapped up by plastic

How to learn what lies under clouds of far gas giants where atmospheric pressure in nine million times is higher, than on Earth? Mathematics! Scientists used an algorithm USPEX to provide the possible picture of the events under clouds of these poorly studied planets.

Knowing that the Neptune and Uranium consist generally of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, scientists connected calculations to determine strange chemical processes which can proceed there. As a result the exotic polymers, organic plastic, crystal carbonic acid and orthocarbon acids (it “Hitler’s acid”, because its atomic structure reminds a swastika) which is wrapped up around a firm internal kernel turned out.

During searches of extraterrestrial life on the Titan and Europe scientists hope that water could react with breeds with course of organic processes. But if the internal kernel is wrapped up by exotic crystals and plastic, it is necessary to review some things.

On Mercury there is huge Grand Canyon

If on Venus and Mars there was a volcanic activity some more millions years ago, seemingly, that the baby Mercury calmed down 3-4 billion years ago. The planet cooled down, began to contract and burst.

In the course of it there was a massive crack which scientists call Great Valley. According to the statement of scientists of the University of Maryland:

“The valley 400 kilometers wide and 965 kilometers long, with steep slopes which get 3 kilometers below than the surrounding area. That you could compare if Great Valley of Mercury existed on Earth, it would be twice deeper than Grand Canyon and stretched from Washington to New York and Detroit far in the West”.

On the tiny planet in a circle of only 4800 kilometers such Great Valley is more similar to a terrible scar on the person.

Venus was suitable for life once

Venus — the only planet which spins back to front. At 460 degrees Celsius, her surface rather heating to melt lead, and the planet is wrapped up with clouds of sulfuric acid. But once Venus, perhaps, was capable to support life.

More than four billion years ago Venus had oceans. Actually, it is considered that water on the planet was more than two billion years. Today Venus very dry and has no water vapor at all. The solar wind Solntsa has blown off her all.

The atmosphere of Venus marks out big electric field five times stronger than terrestrial. This field also is rather strong to overcome the gravity of Venus and to push out hydrogen and oxygen in an upper atmosphere where solar winds will blow off them away.

Scientists don’t know why electric field of Venus so strong, but it can be connected with the fact that Venus is closer to the Sun.

The earth is fed with the Moon

The earth is surrounded by the magnetic field protecting us from charged particles and harmful radiation. If not it, we would be irradiated by space beams 1000 times stronger than those that now. Our computers and electronics would be roasted instantly. Therefore it is great that in the center of our planet the huge sphere from the melted iron turns. Until recently scientists haven’t been sure why he continues to rotate. Eventually, he has to cool down and be slowed down.

But for the last 4,3 billion years he has cooled down on only 300 degrees Celsius. Thus, we have lost not enough heat that hasn’t played a special role for magnetic field. Now scientists believe that the orbit of the Moon supports the heated Earth kernel in the course of rotation, throwing about 1000 billion watts of energy in a kernel. The moon can be much more important for us, than we thought.

Rings of Saturn — new

From 1600th years disputes on that how many there are rings of Saturn and from where they have undertaken are conducted. In the theory, Saturn once had more moon and some of them have faced among themselves. There was as a result a cloud of fragments which has decayed on rings and 62 satellites.

Observing as Saturn squeezes out geysers of Enceladus, scientists could estimate the relative force of the tow of the gas giant. As all satellites have been thrown into longer orbits, it has allowed scientists to estimate approximately when there was a small party among the moon.

Figures have shown that rings of Saturn don’t belong to formation of the planet four billion years ago in any way. Actually, except for more remote moon the Titan and Yapet, large satellites of Saturn, most likely, were created during the Cretaceous, an era of dinosaurs.

In our vicinities of 15 000 very big asteroids

In 2005 NASA was entrusted to find 90% of large objects in near-earth space by 2020. So far the agency found 90% of objects of 915 meters in size and more, but only 25% — 140 meters in size or are more.

In 2016, with 30 new opening a week, NASA found 15 000 objects. For reference: in 1998 the agency found only 30 new objects a year. NASA catalogs all comets and asteroids around to be convinced that we will know when something is going to strike us. Nevertheless meteors sometimes break without the prevention, like the fact that blew up over Chelyabinsk in 2013.

We specially broke the device against a comet

The spacecraft of the European Space Agency “Rosette” rotated around a comet 67P/Churyumova — Gerasimenko within two years. The device collected data and even placed the landing module on a surface, though it isn’t absolutely successful.

This mission 12 years long allowed to make a number of important discoveries. For example, “Rosette” found amino acid glycine, the main construction unit of life. Though long ago assumed that amino acids could be formed in space at the beginning of the Solar system, it was succeeded to find them only thanks to “Rosette”.

“Rosetta” found 60 molecules, 34 of which never found on a comet before. Device tools also showed essential distinction as a part of water of a comet and water of Earth. Then it is unlikely water on Earth appeared thanks to comets.

After the successful mission of the ESA broke the device against a comet.

Riddles of the Sun are solved

All planets and stars have magnetic fields which change over time. On Earth this field turns over each 200 000–300 000 years. But now they are late.

In the Sun everything occurs quicker. Each 11 years or about that polarity of magnetic field of the Sun turns over. It is accompanied by the period of hyperactivity of the sun and solar spots.

Strangely enough, Venus, Earth and Jupiter are leveled at this time. Scientists believe that these planets can influence the Sun. By results of a research when planets are leveled, their gravity is combined, causing tidal effect on plasma of the sun, attracting it and breaking magnetic field of the sun.