In one of the most ancient illuminated manuscripts with the text of the New Testament were used dyes obtained from fermented urine. To such conclusion scientists from the Institute of ICRCPAL.
For a long time scientists wondered how was received the pink color of parchment Rozanski code. It was assumed that for coloring sheets was used Tyrian purple obtained from shellfish of igliano.
Recently conducted analysis showed that the dye was obtained from orsina, a natural dye extracted from the lichen Roccella tinctoria and produced in the presence of ammonia in the period, the source of which could only be fermented urine, according to Discovery.
Rozanski code was found in 1879 in the temple town of Rossano in southern Italy. The manuscript survive. It was probably only half the book. It contained the text of the gospel of Matthew and the gospel of Mark and consisted of 188 sheets with colorful miniatures. Text in Greek was written using gold and silver ink. Probably, the manuscript was created in Syria in the V – VI centuries BC Two missing Gospels, most likely, were destroyed during a fire in the temple in the XVII century.
In 1917-1919, was carried out restoration of the manuscript, which was distorted to its original form. During a recent study, researchers have tried to minimize the risk of damage to the books. Conducted by experts of x-ray fluorescence analysis showed the absence of bromine to be present in the manuscript when using Tyrian purple. According to the researchers, in the manufacture of the dye was also used sodium carbonate. A source of sodium carbonate could be crystal soda. It is known that in Ancient Egypt soda was used in mummification.
Raman spectroscopy also revealed that the shade mauve and purple flowers in the miniatures of the manuscripts were obtained using dye based on elderberries. This is the first example of the use of dye from elderberries in illuminated manuscripts.