The majestic sewage structures of ancient Rome, known as Cloaca maxima, are one of the most impressive engineering feats of antiquity. These structures, which were built more than two millennia ago, are still in excellent operating condition today and fulfill their function of collecting stormwater runoff in the Palatine and Capitol area. In this article we will look at the history of the development of sewage facilities in ancient Rome and their importance for modern times.
The origins of sewers go back to ancient times. Already in 3000 BC in India there were high-tech sewage systems. However, the most famous and developed were the sewage facilities of ancient Rome. Water channels first appeared in the fields of farmers as irrigation systems. Later, in parallel with the development of water supply, the construction of sewerage systems began. After all, if water is supplied, it must also be discharged.
Sewerage in ancient Rome was a complex system of canals that were used to collect sewage from houses, rainwater runoff, as well as sewage from swimming pools and fountains. The canals were constructed using brick, stone, and ceramic pipes. They were reinforced with walls and bottoms, and covered with vaults at the top. This not only avoided unpleasant odors, but also solved the problem of paving streets.
One of the most famous sewage structures of ancient Rome is the Cloaca maxima, or “Great Sewer”. This structure was built around 500 BC and served to divert sewage from the city. The canal was about 800 meters long and had an average width of 3 meters, and 6.5 meters at the mouth of the Tiber River. The height of the vaults was up to 4 meters. Both vertical openings and lateral tunnels of various cross-sections were used to drain the sewage.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of sewage facilities of Ancient Rome for modern times. They are not only a historical monument, but also an example of high engineering thought and thoughtfulness. These structures continue to perform their function to this day, which testifies to their reliability and durability.