December 18, 1888, Richard Wetherill, a cowboy toured Mesa Verde in search of a stray from the herd of cows, but instead they saw on the other side of the canyon, directly into the wall of the cliff, a real city with towers and houses. Through a veil of snow structure seemed to be floating in the air.
The next day the Blizzard had subsided, and Richard returned for a better look at this miracle. He saw a large stone building resembling an ancient fortress located in the recess of a sheer cliff. With yellow walls black rectangles watched dozens of Windows. Subsequently, Richard and his brothers, making stairs, were able to get to this building and explore it. They also visited the nearby canyons and a year later found another 182 settlements in the rocks.
In the language of the Navajo, “Anasazi” means “ancient enemies.” Distant descendants of the tribe of the Pueblo call them “hisatsinom” (Hisatsinom), “the patriarchs.” They lived in arid lands of Arizona, new Mexico, Utah and Colorado, beginning around 850 and 1300. Then many settlements were abandoned for an unknown reason. From an archaeological point of view, this culture is most famous for its “Big Houses” – a community of high-rise buildings reminiscent of a modern apartment building. In these homes it was up to 650 rooms, which were home to thousands of people. Center of the Anasazi culture was a densely populated Chaco canyon (new Mexico), where at least nine Large Houses, well-treated walls of Sandstone. For the construction of floors and roofs left at least 20 thousand trees, and the wood is often imported from places located at a distance of over 100 kilometers.
In Chaco Canyon, scientists have found considerable evidence of how extensive were the astronomical knowledge of the local Indians. Erecting the house, the Indians were able to accurately Orient them to the cardinal. Thus, the wall of a house in Pueblo Alto is located exactly along the line connecting the West with the East the same in Pueb-lo-Bonito. The axis of the Kiva in Casa Rinconada points exactly to the North. Windows and niches in many buildings in Chaco Canyon are oriented exactly with the position of the Sun during the equinoxes and solstices. Perhaps they focused also on the lunar phases, or Venus rising – that we meet in Pueblo Bonit and Chetro-Quetelet. In a circular wall, enclosing Casa Rincon, there are numerous niches. In one of them through the window, looking to the North-East is seen the rising Sun at the time of the summer solstice.
Not so long ago it was made another surprising discovery canyon Chaco is located in the centre of a complex network of roads stretching for hundreds of kilometers. The roads just cleared stones from the land, but part of the real bridge, carved in stone, with a border of clay bricks.
In the 70-ies of the last century, when it was possible to make aerial photographs of the roads, everyone thought that they were built in a purely economic purposes. Many monuments of the Anasazi culture outside of Chaco canyon have architectural elements similar to Large Houses, including Large detached Houses and Large Kiwi (underground religious structures). In this regard, archaeologists and suggested that the road system was created with the purpose of uniting disparate communities. However, later it turned out that economic benefits played a secondary role during construction. The road went in a straight line, refusing to follow easy the contours of the land and not departing before standing in the way of mountains, even they were not the shortest route between two towns. On some road sections were parallel to each other. Moreover, approaching the canyon, they often turn into stairs carved into the steep slopes, using stone hammers and chisels, which required a Herculean effort of the ancient workers. On the steepest sections even had to erect scaffolding to climb on almost steep slopes. And finally there are roads that simply lead nowhere, disappearing, instead of the end of the settlement. So, purely economic use, is very doubtful.
However, the modern shamans say that they make a magical journey (often in the shape of animals or birds) when their spirit floats above the ground in distant places. Straight lines, presumably could serve as a guide for such a trip.
But the most mysterious in the culture of the Anasazi, their petroglyphs, they are often left on the buildings and on the cliffs and caves. At first glance, like an ordinary painting of a cave century. Upon closer inspection it turned out that many of these petroglyphs (especially spiral) are a kind of diagrams. They display should look like the different effects produced by the play of light and shadow in the movement of the sun over the corners of the buildings.
In the East of the canyon has a remarkable name: rock of FAI-da-Butte height of 120 m. it is engraved with two spiral. Before her set three stone slabs three-meter height. At the summer solstice, at 11 o’clock in the morning, narrow, pointed beam of light falls on the middle of the large spiral, cutting it exactly in half. During the fall and spring equinox a ray of light falls on a large spiral, and the other on the small. In the winter solstice” at 10 o’clock in the morning, two narrow strips of light bordered by a large spiral. It is possible that this spiral also notes the extreme positions of the lunar orbit. After moonrise in the extreme South-Eastern point of its orbit, the shadow of the moon cuts the spiral in two, and after moonrise in the extreme North-Eastern point of its orbit, the shadow touches the left edge of the spiral. Parallel to the border of the shade on the cliff line drawn.
In the Eastern part of Chaco Canyon, near the ruins of the Pueblo of Vlasici, the rock scratched the symbol, marking the play of light and shadow in the days of the solstices and equinoxes. In addition, Hovenweep the Anasazi Indians used the natural irregularities of the terrain. So, on the wall of the corridor, formed by two rocks — it stretched nearly five meters — engraved symbol of the Sun, typical of Puebloan culture: three concentric circles with a dot in the middle. It is here connected to two narrow ray of Sunshine about an hour after sunrise on the equinox. Obviously, the Indians regularly watched this spectacular scene. It all works to this day with flawless precision…
Still it remains a mystery why the Anasazi tribes abandoned their city and never returned home. Some researchers believe that the cause was environmental factors, others blame the bloody wars of the past centuries. Anyway, the generally accepted view that the Anasazi never left, and became the ancestors of the modern Pueblo. But there is an alternative version.
Anthropologists studying the history of the tribes of South-West America, remember the legend of the Navajo Indians. It tells how long ago in Chaco canyon (where the people of the Navajo nation is now forbidden to walk) landed alien ship. It arrived very evil stranger, like a huge lizard. He began to call himself God, but the Indians called him “a Player”. Sometimes the alien could take human form, turning into a blonde, blue-eyed man.
The only one who took the predator as a God, was Anasazi. In “gratitude” alien enslaved their people – hundreds of thousands of people. When the reptile felt hungry, she ate her subjects. The stranger has allowed people to breed pigs. And when they ate the meat of animals for food, laughed, “like eating like that.”
So why was it called “Player”? The reptilians have tricked stupid people in the Chaco canyon, offering to play with him in the game in which the rate, on the one hand, had wealth, and other life. Of course, a treasure no one had returned.
In the end, people are tired of the cruelty of the tyrant, and they came to the “Holy people”. Those came up with a cunning plan, in which the Player is strapped to a huge arrow, and shot it to the moon.
Reptilians have departed, taking with them all the Anasazi. The Navajo believe that evil God lives there still. He still eats people – not only Indians Anasazi, but also representatives of other civilizations. The monster is waiting in the wings to return to Earth and take revenge on everyone who lives on the planet.