In the 1st millennium BC, at the crossroads of great trade routes, was the mighty kingdom of Sabaea, which stretched from the Red Sea to Hadramawt and from Central Arabia to the Indian Ocean. This state was known for its wealth and prosperity through trade with the Mediterranean, India and Africa. However, a number of internal and external factors led to its decline.
One of the key reasons was the destruction of the Mariba Dam, which was built in the 6th century BC and was one of the wonders of the ancient world. The dam provided irrigation for hundreds of thousands of hectares of fertile land, allowing for rich harvests. However, earthquakes caused the dam to collapse and the fields were left without water. The land dried up and desert sands began to penetrate the cultivated land.
As the Sabean kingdom began to weaken, the city of Ubar in present-day Oman flourished. Ubar was known for its wealth and prosperity, and its inhabitants built a city of stone columns. Legends of the city of Ubar were everywhere, and it is mentioned in the Quran and the Arabian tales of the Thousand and One Nights.
However, as time passed, the city of Ubar began to disappear. Locals told of frightening sounds that came from the desert and huge sandstorms that swallowed the city. Ubar was buried under layers of sand and its existence was forgotten for centuries.
In recent years, archaeologists have begun to explore the area, and the ruins of the ancient city of Ubar have been discovered. These discoveries have confirmed the existence of the city and its importance in the history of the region. They have also aroused the interest of scientists who are trying to solve the mystery of Ubar’s disappearance and the reasons for its burial under the sands.
One possible explanation is the changing climate in the region. As mentioned, the climate in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula was subtropical 5,000 years ago. However, as time passed, the climate became increasingly arid and the desert sands began to spread to the lands of Ubar. This may have led to the disappearance of the city and its inhabitants.
However, there are other theories about the disappearance of Ubar. Some scholars believe that the city may have been destroyed due to conflicts or wars with neighboring tribes. Others suggest that the city was abandoned due to economic decline and deteriorating living conditions.
Research in archaeology and geology continues, and perhaps it will help us solve the mystery of Ubar and learn more about its past.