Who really discovered America?

Now we are sitting in the cabin, quickly and easily be in the most remote corners of the planet. But somehow believe that in ancient times people rarely dared to cross the borders of their country. Meanwhile, the people at all times have tried to look beyond the horizon. Sometimes they were driven by curiosity, the desire to get rich on the trade or robbery. It went a long journey, in order to test their strength.

America should never have access to Christopher Columbus, because nobody, in principle, is not closed. In South America found numerous sculptures of typical members of all races and peoples. Here one no – Negroid Semites, Caucasians and Chinese, bearded Aryans and the inhabitants of the Islands of Polynesia.

The artifacts of the Olmec culture can be found as Negroid, and Asian facial features

According to these works of art, sailing across oceans — the Atlantic and Pacific has never stopped. Pharaoh of Egypt Ramses II for example, apparently regularly received from Central America tobacco.

Ramses II ruled Egypt for sixty-six years: for the 1290 1224 BC Among the pieces of linen cloth out of his sarcophagus researcher Michelle Lesko found a speck of dust tobacco. Such could not fail to perplex the researcher. After all, tobacco is native from America. In Europe it was only in the XVI century. Even later met the North African countries. Scientists are quite sure that the ancient Egyptians didn’t smoke. The mystery of the tobacco in the sarcophagus of Ramses II was never solved and the hypothesis that the voyages of the Egyptians in America is considered unscientific.

The Vikings in North America

In the Viking age (IX—XI century), making frequent sailing to the West, the Scandinavian Viking, as it is now finally recognized by official science, the first European to visit America.

The discovery of America (Vinland) was made by the Vikings after initially was opened Faroe Islands and Iceland. In about 985, Erik the Red, a native of Norway, discovered Greenland. After several exploratory voyages to the shores of the island Eric the Red found it quite livable, at least in the southern part, and called it Grunland Green country. Half a dozen Icelandic ships with settlers marked the beginning of the famous Greenlandic colony of Vikings.

After the Vikings firmly established on the land of Greenland, North America was literally the neighboring country. Norman colony was separated from the giant continent only Davis Strait, whose width at its narrowest point does not exceed 200 miles. Crossing it was no difficulty for those who went on their boats on the stormy ocean, in Norway and Iceland. During a fishing expedition along the West coast of Greenland colonists on clear days could see in the distance the high mountains of Baffin island.

The Vikings lived in Greenland for about 500 years and, of course, could not discover North America.

“We — writes X. Ingstad, a Norwegian, would have been entitled to claim it, even if I did not have written sources. But lucky for us, we have sources that tell about the voyages of the Norsemen from Greenland to the unknown land in the West… These sources, the Icelandic sagas, written two hundred years after the event itself, with enough details on the campaigns in the new earth.”

However, scientists do not really trust the sagas. The hypothesis about the discovery of America by the Normans existed for many years, but more reliable evidence could not be found. Even the map of the North-East coast of America, which related to Viking times, was, in some respects, a forgery.

But in 1960 in Newfoundland (Canada), finally found the remains of the Viking settlement of L’anse AUX meadows. And in 2010 in Iceland were investigated the remains of a woman and established that she was Indian, arrived in Iceland around the year 1000 and remained there to live.

L’anse AUX meadows is a historic — archeological monument, the Western Viking settlement

There were earlier finds. In 1898 the American farmer Olaf Oman found in Kensington (Minnesota) under the roots of a large aspen heavy lump of grey stone, covered with strange marks, similar to Scandinavian runes. The find was immediately taken to the Professor-philologist Minneapolis University O. Dzh. Brad, who confirmed that the inscriptions do runic. The text of the ancient inscriptions read:

“[We] 8 ready [i.e., Swedes] and 22 Norwegians [of participants] reconnaissance voyage from Vinland to the West. We stopped at two skerries one day’s journey North from this stone. We [went] one day, and fished. Then came back, found 10 of [our] people bloody and dead. [Prosperity, Virgo Maria] save us from evil! Ten people from our group stayed at sea to look after our ships [or for our ship], 14 days ‘ journey from this island. Year 1362”.

After the publication of the notice of this discovery there were many works that put serious doubts about its authenticity. The struggle over the Kensington stone and continues in our day, but a decisive victory is not achieved, none of the warring parties.

Kensington Runestone

The ancient Chinese in America

In 1925, American archaeologist Nelson found in the Gobi (Mongolia) a stone cuneiform artifact, and later found similar in Alaska. He argued that artifacts found in Asia and America, were so identical that it is impossible that they were created in isolation of the inhabitants of these continents.

About 3000 years ago, in the late Shang dynasty and early Zhou dynasty in China, as well as on the coast of Central America in the field, which today is South-East Mexico and parts of Guatemala, there was suddenly an archaic culture of the Olmec. It expanded its influence to other countries in Central and South America due to the strong political and religious power, progressive social system and a special artistic style.

Faces of the figures of the Olmec culture are reminiscent of Chinese

The Olmec civilization was the mother civilization of Central America and the forerunner of civilization in North and South America. Her UPS and downs caused by the unknown and mysterious factors.

About the sudden appearance of the Olmec culture historians do not have consensus. There are two main theories: diffusionists and “independent inventors”.

Based on the research of Professor Michael D. CoE of Yale University, authority on these issues, some historians support the theory of “independent inventors”. CoE argued that the culture of the Olmec developed independently, this view is shared by most Western scholars.

Diffusionists many supporters of the theory believe that American and Chinese civilizations had contact with each other in ancient times. In the early 80-ies, based on the discovery of ancient stone anchors on the seabed in South America and some of the records of the Chinese classics, a historian, and oceanographer Fan Charms came to the conclusion that in ancient times, the Chinese sailed across the Pacific to America.

Tiger, ceramics, Chavin culture (Andes, Peru). The culture of Chavin is often associated with Mexican alimacani. The art of the era Cavina is similar to the art of the Olmec.

Tiger and bird, Yin-Shang dynasty (Chinese state that existed from 1600 to 1027 BC, in the lands to the North of the exit of R. the yellow river to the Great Chinese plain)

Professor Chang Guang Chih, an anthropologist and archaeologist at Harvard University, proposed the hypothesis of the continuity of Maya culture and Chinese civilization. Zhang believes that the ancient Chinese, who crossed the Bering Strait, traveling from Asia to America, already had a developed culture, so the civilization of the Yin-Shang dynasty and the Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica can be considered descendants of the same ancestor.

In the ceremonial center of the Olmec La Venta unearthed 16 jade statues, their faces similar to the faces of the Chinese, and the heads are elongated, they are exactly the same, which was worshipped in the dynasty of Yin-Shang. Also found were 6 jade signs with images, similar to the inscriptions on bones and bronze objects in the dynasty of Yin-Shang. According to the results of studies conducted by Wang Give, the words written on these tablets of jade, are the names of the ancestors of Yin.

Famous Chinese winemaker Liu Yaohan believes that some of the inhabitants of Yunnan province migrated in ancient times to America. He noted that the solar calendar of an ethnic group And shared many similarities with the 18-month calendar of the Mayans and the Incas. Similarly, the worship of the Jaguar and the eagle, a 10-month solar calendar of the people And as well as an octagonal star, shows the link between the Mayan culture and the Inca culture of the Chinese people I.

The similarity of Indian and Chinese pictograms

John A. Ruskamp-Junior researcher, who conducted a comparison of the characters of the Indians and ancient Chinese pictographs. He believes that between them there is a great similarity.

Ruskamp used the similarity index of jaccard for comparing Indian and Chinese glyphs icons. This index was developed by the botanist Paul Zaccara, it is used to compare the similarities and differences between elements. In your website Roskamp posted a list of 53 pairs of native American glyphs and ancient Chinese pictograms.

Using the index of jaccard, it is estimated that the glyphs on 95% of the same icons. That is, the probability that the glyphs were created independently, and they are only accidentally similar to Chinese pictograms, less than 5%. In most cases this probability is less than 1%.

Glyphs in new Mexico look like traditional Chinese prediction with divination on the bones, writes Rescan the article on your website. If you interpret a glyph in new Mexico using the ancient Chinese pictograms, it would mean:”the Next 10 day period is successful.”

Left: petroglyph in Rinconada canyon, new Mexico. Right: the Chinese pictogram for “flower”

Left: petroglyphs in Oklahoma. Right: the Chinese pictogram “spike”, about 1300 BC

The Carthaginians in America

Some researchers believe that the Carthaginians also were able to swim in ancient America, but a clear and recognized scientists of the facts that would prove it, at the moment no.

Greek writer Peopoe said: “Europe, Asia and Libya (then called Africa) is an island, paasivaara ocean. Behind them is the huge extent of the continent”. As in the days of Ancient Greece, Atlantis no longer existed, it could only be about America. Greeks learned about it, of course, from the most eminent navigators of antiquity — the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians. They have been there. And repeatedly.

The famous Greek historian Aristotle in the book “Amazing stories” wrote:

“They say that in the sea, Pillars of Hercules (i.e. the Straits of Gibraltar), the Carthaginians were found in the island. In its forests grow all kinds of trees and wonderful fruits there were navigable rivers, and he was at a distance of many days journey.

When the Carthaginians saw that many merchants and others, attracted by the fertility of the soil and pleasant climate, began to frequently visit him, and some even settle on it, they were afraid that news of these lands will be shared with other peoples and will be followed by a great migration of people.

Therefore, in order to Carthaginian Empire suffered no damage and her sovereignty has not changed hands, the Senate of Carthage issued a decree that no one under pain of death, swam to the island. Those who settled on it, were put to death”.

About America after Aristotle said the most famous orator of antiquity — the Roman Cicero. From the Romans about America I learned and the Arabs. For 450 years before the voyage of Columbus, the Central Asian scholar Abu Rai-Khan Biruni in his writings many times talked about existing across the Atlantic in a big land.

When the Carthaginians discovered America?

Spanish scientist of the XVII century Marianus de Orellana, based on no extant ancient manuscripts, wrote that it occurred in 371 BC between Rome and Carthage was at war. The part of the Carthaginians, foreseeing inevitable defeat, he moved to America. Some returned to Europe.

Why? Specifically, in order to spread the word that their compatriots are all killed. The only way they could feel truly safe. A Spanish historian says: “after some discussion, the Senate decided to withhold the news. Those who brought the news about the discovery of the island, were executed. In Carthage feared, perhaps, that the people, tired of the war, which lasted for many years, decides to leave the city and move to these beautiful Islands.”

Maybe all the same rights Aristotle, not Arcellana, and the Carthaginians didn’t want to see in America strangers? And because he spread rumors of the death of the first settlers. Especially among foreigners.

But if it is true that the Carthaginians settled in America, their new homeland should remain some traces of their stay. They were. In one of the ancient graves belonging to the pre-Columbian time, archaeologists found the head of a Roman statue of the second century BC Who can deliver there? Only those who were in close contact with the Romans.

Then in Venezuela was found a treasure of Roman sinking of the I—V centuries ad How he got there? Probably on a ship of the Carthaginians.

Immigrants from North Africa have not disappeared among the Indians. They may have created a state which we know as the Inca Empire. The capital of this great Empire — the city of Cusco.

Why do researchers believe that this great power in South America was created by refugees from Carthage? The indigenous inhabitants of the continent believed the Inca foreigners, noting that they spoke in an unknown tongue and had a more lighter skin. The Incas, starting with the first ruler, Manco Capac, always lived closed, marriages were only allowed between his. They, as in Carthage, worshipped the one God — the Sun. Saw him as a heavenly father.

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