In the ancient time people treated dreams much more tremblingly. Today it is destiny of mystics and deep psychotherapists. And the modest Austrian doctor Siegmund Freud was one of them in due time.
It is a lot of years devoted to studying of hysteria and other neurosises, in 1900, at last, issues the main work of the life – “Interpretation of dreams”. This book becomes a catechism of new movement in psychology – psychoanalysis. It will become the doctrine of the doctrine about unconscious, she will be fated to move heaven and earth and destinies of all industries of a human thought: from medicine, psychiatry and anthropology to philosophy and art.
In it Freud opens the nature of dreams, proving that night dreams aren’t senseless at all, them it is possible and it is necessary to interpret. However, to make it it is very difficult. Therefore never believe in existence of “dream book according to Freud” as you don’t trust in flowers of a gold fern. “Dreams is a royal road in unconscious”, – Freud said. And to understand dreams, it is necessary to understand that such unconscious and as it works.
Thinking of primitive
It – a key to I understand our unconscious – and to understanding of our dreams. The matter is that the thinking of the primitive person in many respects reminds “thinking” in a dream of our contemporary. First of all what operates not with abstract verbal concepts, but specific images – as in the childhood. There is no abstraction and figurative sense. Words are perceived as a thing. If in a dream unconscious “wants” to tell: “Devils brought guests on the dacha”, it will represent devils who in a literal sense will carry guests on your dacha.
Besides, the primitive thinking is characterized by such processes as shift and a condensation. Let’s explain.
Dreams – are no other than “children” our unconscious, heritage of primitive times. So-called primary process reigns in unconscious (secondary process in psychology call all processes for which our consciousness is responsible: this rational thinking, logic, analysis and synthesis of any information etc.). To primary process, as well as primitive thinking, energy fluidity is peculiar, in it there is no tough sheaf between any event, image (for example, the death of mother) and emotion which is accompanied by this image or an event in our adult, real life (in this case, feeling of a grief). Therefore if we dream, for example, the death of mother, we can not feel any grief, or experience only slight grief, and even opposite feeling – rough joy. Thus, emotion of a grief “is displaced”, coming off the image of death of mother. Exactly thanks to shift our dreams look so strange and unclear.
You dreamed some man about whom it is impossible to tell precisely whether he was your father or, for example, the husband, and the woman who, it seems, was your mother, but at the same time absolutely unfamiliar lady?. All these images from dreams – not a fruit of your imagination and not result of a strange defect of sleepy consciousness. They – generation of so-called process of a condensation. The primitive person perceived reality big pieces, not especially paying attention to details. Behaves also our unconscious which generates dreams – instead of one image it uses the whole groups.
And in unconscious (and at the same time in primitive thinking, and, by the way, in thinking of savages, small children and mentally sick people) there is no logic. And therefore it isn’t also in our dreams. If it is available, then in case of skillful interpretation of a dream it isn’t more difficult “to remove” it, than a skin from the boiling milk. Logic in dreams – only visibility which hides absolutely illogical episodes of a dream. Its modest role – to make a dream more convenient for perception of the modern person who didn’t get used to irrational material. By any logical our dreams are done by above-mentioned secondary process which, of course, too participates in creation of dreams.
One more feature of unconscious – hard times. Probably, it is already clear that complete vinaigrette reigns in this field of our mentality, it would be strange if in it there was a concept of time. For this reason in a dream events absolutely incompatible on time can appear.
In the ancient time dreams were nearly more important for people, than reality. In due time clay tablets which belonged to the third millennium BC were found in Babylon. It were dream books which, in fact, differed in nothing from modern. Egyptians and Greeks treated dreams, as a voice of gods. However, some cultures considered dreams intrigues of a devil. Among them and Orthodox church. It and is clear, considering its Puritan values. Hindus treated dreams as to the window which is between the transitory and sacral worlds.
Important feature of primitive thinking – lack of denial. For its image the archaic person resorted to contrast. Also the dreaming behaves. The negative relation to something can express a dreaming, for example, through feeling of retardation of the movement. Let’s explain. Such phenomenon can be observed, for example, in dreams about nakedness which Freud, “tragic Votan of sumerok of bourgeois psychology”, called the scary word – eksgibitsionistsky. We dream the fact that we naked walk down the street, at the same time, for some reason can’t reach the house and put on, our movements can be slowed down. All these dreams reflect no other than secret desire to show themselves that is called in the buff. There is nothing awful, however, in emergence of such dreams. They are only expression of melancholy for our carefree childhood when we ran stark naked and delighted it all surrounding. This absolutely innocent dream belongs to “typical dreamings” of which it will be a question below and which at least once in life were seen by everyone.
It turns out that the problem of interpretation of dreamings is a problem of the translation of the images created by primitive thinking in the form accepted for the modern person.
The dreaming is an execution of desire
Such simple dreamings as dreams about thirst or food (when snovidets in reality wants to eat, drinks or eats in a dream – and can’t neither get drunk in any way, nor gorge on), or children’s dreams about receiving a treasured toy, about delivery to the offender or becoming the superman, say that aim at least parts of our dreams – execution of some desires or requirements. Noticed it and Freud. But, as well as it is necessary to the famous pervert, he went further, having assumed that in general all our dreams – no other than fulfillment of desires.
It is clear, however that the majority of dreamings of adults are experienced more likely as unpleasant, frightening and even dreadful, or not causing any special experiences at all. Being based, besides, on the clinical experience, Freud sees the reason of this disharmony in distortion of a dreaming. Let’s explain.
Any neurosis is a certain retrogress to the previous stages of development of the person. It is possible to tell that what more broke” the person, that he “is more primitive”, more his “thinking” reminds those thinking of the primitive person, small child and savage. The dreaming is generated by primitive thinking too – it has all its characteristic features. Therefore Freud assumed, as neurosises, and dreamings can lie in one mental plane. But put even not in it.
Any neurotic symptom is felt by the person as unpleasant. But it, strangely enough, is generated by something desired (not to confuse to more serious psychotic and boundary symptomatology – NS). It is result of the conflict of the hidden desire (desire It) and the psychological “censorship” (Super I) forbidding to realize this desire due to various reasons – for example, the social bans, or the bans from the specific family member. After understanding by Freud’s patients of this hidden desire – also their symptoms disappeared.
Therefore the founder of a psychoanalysis assumed that the unpleasant or neutral dreaming can be a compromise product between desire (It) and the psychological instance same controlling, forbidding which is responsible for morals, shame and conscience too ((Super I)).
Desire and censorship
The dreaming as Freud noticed, consists of the demonstrative (obvious) and hidden contents. Creators of a dreaming are two certain mental forces of which one forms expressed (as a rule, by means of images) desire, and another – carries out censorship. The last is necessary to distort, hide forbidden desire.
and the help to censorship also all above-mentioned lines of primitive thinking come. In spite of the fact that the dreaming and without action of censorship has, mostly, only graphic agents of archaic thinking, censorship skillfully uses the same agents also in the artful purposes, masking forbidden desires in our dreams. If we secretly wish death hated to us to the person, but doesn’t allow to realize it to us conscience, we can dream about “compromise” of our desire and censorship conscience – news of the death of this person with which we cry and we wake up. Whether it is worth saying that all this is realized precisely a dreadful dream.
Naturally, in each case of a dreaming it is necessary to interpret in different ways (excepting only typical dreams about which speech will go below). It is impossible to consider them without participation of “free associations” of the snovidets. And, as a rule, there is a lot of “meanings” at a dreaming, they follow one of another, taking away further and further in depth of our mentality. The dreaming is most often similar to a bulb which layers can be taken out very longly, in certain cases even for years.
Hi from the childhood
The dream as Freud believed, expresses execution not of simple, but infantile desire, what has arisen and has arisen in the deep childhood. It and is clear. And the dream (and neurosis) is from prehistoric times and from the childhood. It doesn’t mean that desire couldn’t acquire more “adult” reasons, but his root will always grow from the childhood. It is confirmed also by dreams of adults which dreamed them at tender age, and then in an invariable look have removed to mature life.
Today don’t watch at a dream as categorically as it was done by Freud. If it is about more deep layers of dreams, about dreams which more broken people, than neurotics have (as which ruthless psychoanalysis ranks, perhaps, all; you shouldn’t be afraid of what, however, as in psychoanalysis the concept of neurosis is brought closer to norm, unlike psychiatry), dreams can reflect some psychological purposes of the one who sees them – for example, the purposes “to collect” the mentality in a whole at psychosis, attempts to samoizlechitsya etc. Nevertheless, all these purposes all the same it will be from the childhood as any psychological violations or just deep levels “belong” to early years.
The founder of analytical psychology Karl Jung, however, has gone further away. He saw in dreams not so much heritage of individual development how many development of all mankind. And it is possible too, all individual intertwines with universal sooner or later.
Function of dreams consists in reconciling two contradictory forces: physiological desire to sleep and the excitement going from the mental or somatic sphere. Dreams are guards of a dream, they allow us not to wake up because of ongoing work of our mentality and an organism.
From what was
What our dreams are made of? Strangely enough, from the most insignificant episodes of real life. Freud calls them the day remains. These are, as a rule, some events, small, absolutely neutral for us, which have taken place during the day. Even if in the afternoon to us there was something extraordinary, at night some trifle will dream us. Possibly, you also noticed it.
“Great and awful” Siegmund Freud and in it sees a certain hidden sense. The matter is that neutrality of the day remains is important for censorship. Some events, significant, emotionally rich for us, would be very complex material for “construction” of the dream which is already penetrated by secret desires. For him faceless “bricks” are necessary.
And our dreams are filled with characters. Their role – to replace some things of the certain general, personal, significant only for us, for all with symbolics. They – heritage of our phylogenetic experience and archaic thinking of the past. Besides, characters, besides help “Jesuit” plans of censorship – they mask objects, significant for us, under neutral. The symbolics, by the way, is the tool not only dreams, but also cinema, art and literature. However, as well as many others “graphic means” of archaic thinking.
Characters happen the universal – the general for all mankind, known of myths, legends, rituals and folklore. Happen the conditional – significant in this specific culture (for example, Russians have white color – the purity character, and Japanese have death). And, at last, characters can be personal – significant and clear only for the specific person. They were created in the course of its own development.
At one and all dreams there is snovidets even if he is absent, apparently, anywhere. It can “be” behind image of other characters of a dream: people, animals, objects and even phenomena.
As it was already told above, dreams can’t express the abstract words – instead of them they use images. Therefore such concept as frequency, they can replace with quantity. If in your dream there is a lot of something – people, chairs, machines etc. – it can mean that something often meets.
The dream can’t operate with a concept of time or distances therefore figures similar things in own way. For example, if you dream little people or animals, it can mean that something was long ago.
The union “and” dream expresses by means of simple layout of events or objects nearby with each other.
And the dream isn’t able to speak “no”. Or rather, is able, but it is wretched. We said that the dream can express a protest or denial something through block above. One more means of “protest” of censorship against the maintenance of a dream – so-called “dreams in a dream” when dreams us that we already woke up, meanwhile, as we continue to sleep. The fact that we dream as reality – and is ours nothing the covered desire. But, thanks to censorship, having woken up, we calm down the fact that it was only the dream.
Fully the dream is considered only with the single logical relationship: “just as”. Likeness something is figured through combining of people or objects in a single whole.
Interpretation of dreams
How to interpret dreams? Unfortunately, to learn it it is difficult. A certain skill and months of trainings is for this purpose necessary. First of all it is necessary to learn to think psychoanalytic – it means ability to see behind customary rational things something more depth. Dreams at the heart of the are illogical, and therefore it is necessary to try to disconnect logic and in case of their interpretation.
Freud: “From snovidets two things are required: strengthening of attention to the mental perceptions and switching off of criticism with which it usually sifts the appearing thoughts”.
Interpretation of dreams is based on the method of free associations opened by Freud – pronunciations of everything that comes to mind. It is very difficult. It is worth trying to begin it to do, even alone with itself, – and at once there can be a stupor. Since the childhood we are learned to structure accurately the speech and thoughts, to argue logically, but not to talk incoherent nonsense from words. As soon as the person begins to try “to associate freely” – as right there at him or all thoughts and words vanish, or he considers them unclear nonsense, nonsense and even indecent things, and doesn’t consider it necessary to state them. To overcome it, it is necessary to switch off the internal censorship officer and the logician. To make it it is very difficult. Try – and be convinced.
Interferes with the person not only lack of a habit to associate freely, but also extramental internal resistance for which the same censorship and which always aims to make so that true meanings of a dream remained not “recognized” is responsible. If the person learns to talk similar “nonsense” – he quickly enough begins to understand what “hid” from it primitive thinking and as it is useful to disconnect sometimes logic to plunge into antiquity of own mentality, into how our ancestors “thought”. Eventually, it is simply interesting.
To take the first step – it is worth focusing attention not on all dream in general, and only on its separate fragments. Now it is worth beginning to introduce the associations, the ideas, in general everything that comes to mind concerning this or that fragment. Let it will be even any separate and “not belonging” to case of the word. The most important here – not to think in general. After a certain number of trainings you learn to understand better the dreams, so, yourself and people who are near you.
Often, however, very not easy to tell dreams, they are foggy, approximate, not clear. But for interpretation of dreams it has absolutely no value. Dreams are illogical and not clear in principle therefore everything that will come to the person to mind in a wakefulness condition when he tells a dream as it is paradoxical, belongs to dream “thoughts” too. When we immerse ourselves in free associations, we practically dream in reality. Our dreams – generation of our mentality, is the same imagination which we can think up also in reality. Our associations concerning dreams – too generation of our mentality therefore to be afraid that we is inexact we will give a dream, isn’t necessary.
However, sometimes a stupor – an indicator of that before you – a symbol which is, as a rule, treated for all equally. But it is absolutely senseless to use only symbolics for interpretation of dreams as symbols – only very small part of “idea” of a dream.
Besides, the dream practically can never be treated without participation of free associations of the snovidets: nobody can know a dream better him. Therefore type questions: “What means my dream?”, set to themselves, don’t make a sense. Though some thoughts the experienced psychotherapist can channelize nevertheless, but, besides, having listened, for a start, to the snovidets.
For this reason Freud intentionally scattered symbols and their value on the works – not to provoke creation of the next dream book. Traditional interpretation of dreams, as a rule, doesn’t exist – most of them are unique and have very specific value for the specific person.
And nevertheless, there are dreams which in most cases have single value for all and dreamed practically everyone. Here they:
1) About nakedness and a disorder in clothes. At the same time people around don’t pay any attention to nakedness of snovidets.
2) About the death of close relatives. These dreams, in turn, are divided into two groups: accompanied with emotions (a grief and grief) and not accompanied with emotions.
3) About examinations. Usually dream on the eve of some testing though it and is optional. The fear in such dreams is connected with children’s memories of punishment for failure to carry out of the charged case. If such dream dreams before real examination, then you will dream about yourself at examination which was successfully passed in due time. In a dream you fail this examination or hand over very badly. When you wake up – with relief understand that you after all passed that examination, and handed over well. Despite disturbing nature, the purpose of these dreams to comfort you: “If you then passed examination – will hand over and now”.
In a dream, on a legend, the great chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev saw the table. But and here the hidden desire? Moreover, it turns out that in a dream even intellectual work is possible, and it means that about any archaic thinking out of the question. Actually, in preconscious (the mental instance which is between consciousness and unconscious where there “is” our memory) the table already was in the scientist’s head. He kept thinking of it, worked hard over its creation years. The table was already ready to become “conscious”, and was just shown in a dream. It became result of kropotliveyshy work, and not the message of heaven at all. As well as second part Fausta Goethe, song Yesterday of Paul McCartney, structure of atoms of Niels Bohr, brilliant 40th symphony of Mozart etc. The dream just outstripped process: what was still hidden, but just about owed appear in consciousness – was in a dream. As for desire, all these dreams express it more than visually. Both Mendeleyev, and Mozart, and Bohr – went long ago to the opening and passionately wanted to make them.
4) About delay on the train. Such dreams often dream neurasthenics and workaholics who all life drag on the shoulders freight of some infinite work, waiting for day when all this ends, but, unfortunately, such day doesn’t come. Departure – death symbol, and delay – a consolation: “You won’t die”. Such dreams are usually provoked by conscious or unconscious fear of death which for any reason has an effect the day before.
Relatives on a dream plot – when snovidets sees off on the train close relatives – death are treated as the hidden wish by it.
5) About flights. Sources of this dream lie in children’s joyful feelings from tossing and tossing of the baby (and now snovidets) up, from swing on a swing. If such dream dreams the teenager (especially to the boy), so he wants to grow up, or to tower over people around otherwise. Can mean organic experiences. Are often connected with impossibility to reach something in reality, tendency to imagination and daydreaming.
6) About fall. Such dreams are often connected with fear. For example, with fear to give in to any temptation and to fall in eyes of people around. According to Jung, they can be connected with fear of death.
Any commander of antiquity respecting himself didn’t go hiking, without having in case of himself the interpreter of dreams. Without fail they entered and into imperial suite. It is known that on the way to Egypt it didn’t turn out to take the small city from Alexander of Macedon the Shooting gallery. He decided that he will make it on the way back. But the Shooting gallery wasn’t given also for the second time. Soon the dream dreamed Alexander that Heracles (on a legend, the ancestor of the Macedonian tsar) from walls of fortress invites him to enter. Having encouraged by a dream, Macedon suited a siege. It lasted nine months then the tsar began to lose patience. But soon again saw a dream: on its board danced and scoffed satires. It is unknown, than such dreaming “impudence” would come to an end if Macedon didn’t come with the dream to the interpreter – to Arestandr. That, without thinking twice, wrote the word satyros and divided it line into two parts, two words turned out: Sa Tyros that meant: “Your Shooting gallery”. Next day the Shooting gallery fell. Such linguistic approach is rather widespread and today.
7) About swimming, floods and the fires. Are caused, strangely enough, by memories of children’s enuresis. Are connected with instilling of skills of cleanliness.
8) About passing through narrow pass. In such dreams of people anew experiences own birth, and they can appear even at those who were born by means of Cesarean section. Here it is necessary to speak about some problems connected with a birth stage, and optionally physical, but, perhaps, psychological, formation of as persons etc. more likely.
“I have no dreams”: the recipe of disposal of this “illness” is simple. Think of the dreams more often, and they to you will surely come. Many complain also that they forget dreams. To manage to remember them – too it is enough to think only more often of them, to try to concentrate on a dream right after awakening. The dream can be written down. And if person разбудитьво time of a phase of a paradoxical dream, he practically in all cases tells you the dream. Such phases in a night can be around five.
The diagnosis on dreams
There are numerous data that dreams can reflect both mental, and somatic pathological processes long before their manifestation in real life.
However, steady markers of this or that disease can’t still be allocated. All listed below dreams can dream one and all, the speech goes not about the fact of availability of such dreams more likely, and how these or those groups of dreams often dream.
Most often the depression is connected with impossibility to react to anger and aggression outside. With respect thereto there is a turn of an aggressive impulse on itself. In dreams it can be reflected in scenes with aggressive behavior of characters in relation to snovidets and vice versa. The image of the dog biting by the left hand is very widespread. Frequent emergence in dreams of products, especially milk. Scenes with stay in the dirty, spoiled water with impossibility to get out of it can be observed. Dreams with the advent of the died relatives sometimes calling for themselves are possible.
Dreams of such people can be broken into three groups: unavailabilities to examination, prosecution, catastrophic crashes (earthquakes, floods and so forth).
There can be disturbing plots with hit to others country without money and documents, plots about delay (including on the train), about lostness situations (for example, wanderings in the wood).
In dreams dirt, blood, excrements, fetid odors etc. often appear. Or it will be the dreams connected with control and management (strange driving, driving on it without driver etc.). Here the classical dream about the elevator which doesn’t obey and flies up upward belongs, is more rare – falls down.
The central characteristic of dreams of such people – singularity. In them there is what doesn’t meet neither in the nature, nor in mythology. For example, unusual beings are animals without skin, heavy contaminations live and lifeless in beings (people with wheels instead of legs, animals with the “built-in” bolts and nuts etc.). There can be plots with falling apart and dispersal on a part of a body as snovidets, and someone another.