What changed if there were not only three spatial and one time dimensions? Imagine if you can, the ability to move in an additional direction: in addition to up and down, north-south, west-east. That there exists an independent direction beyond our conditional notions of the x, y and z axes. And imagine that you are the only one in the world who can access this fourth dimension. Someone in our three-dimensional world would think that you are able to do strange and unusual things that in some way make you godlike:
– You can teleport from one place to another, disappearing in one place and appearing somewhere else;
– You can move or remove the internal organs of people, do operations without opening the body;
– You can remove anyone from the three-dimensional universe, placing later in some other place at your request.
– How is this possible? Yes, just like you are a three-dimensional being – you interact with a two-dimensional universe.
You will be as godlike as a child with colored pencils or markers. From the point of view of our additional (third) spatial dimension, we can climb inside any two-dimensional creature and move it in its environment without cutting it out. We can turn it out, swap right and left. We can “take” it out of its universe and place it in another place.
And if we ourselves, being three-dimensional beings, decide to get into the two-dimensional universe, we will look very strange, since they can see only “two-dimensional slices” of us at a certain moment. Moving from top to bottom along their slice of space:
– At first we will appear in the form of two footprints;
– Then there will be two circles;
– These circles will grow until they become ovals;
– Then with them will appear a few more circles (fingers);
– These circles grow into large circles (hands, brushes) together with the oval;
– All this will merge into one large section in the shoulders;
– Then shrink and disappear with a head.
Fortunately, in our universe there are no four-dimensional beings, because they would be indistinguishable from the divine beings playing with physics. But what if, instead of being a higher-dimensional entity, would the universe itself have more dimensions than now? It is worth noting that this is quite possible. It was shown that in the past, the universe could have more dimensions.
In the context of the general theory of relativity, it is very easy to construct space-time, in which the number of “large” (that is, macroscopic) dimensions varies with time. Not only could we have a great additional dimension in the past, but in the future too, or in general we can create an ever-changing space-time in which this number is constantly changing.
The physical consequences of this are incredible: we can have a universe in which a fourth additional spatial dimension appears.
What will it look like? Usually we do not think about it, but the four fundamental interactions – gravity, electromagnetism and two nuclear forces – have certain strengths and properties, because there are also dimensions that our universe has. If we reduce or increase the number of measurements, for example, the arrangement of force field lines will change.
It would be a catastrophe if electromagnetism or nuclear forces changed instantly, since atoms or atomic nuclei would disintegrate, change in size or form an absolutely disorderly structure or a related structure (for example, people) that depends on them.
Let us consider an atom in which electrons move along the orbit of a charged nucleus or inside an atom in the atomic nucleus itself. The nuclei and the atoms formed from them represent building blocks for all the matter that makes up our world, and they are on extremely small scales: angstroms for atoms (10-10 meters), femtometers (10-15) for nuclei. If we let these forces “flow” into another spatial dimension, what they could do when this measurement reaches a sufficiently large size, the laws of forces that control them will change too.
In general, these forces will have more “space” for propagation, which means they will weaken faster with the distance traveled, if there are more measurements. For kernels, this change may not be so bad: the size of the cores will be slightly larger, the stability of some nuclei will change, they will either become radioactive or stable. This is not so bad. But electromagnetism can be very problematic.
Imagine what would have happened if suddenly the forces connecting the electrons with the nuclei became weaker. If the strength of this interaction has changed. You do not think about it, but at the molecular level, the only thing that keeps you together is the relatively weak connections between electrons and nuclei. If you change this strength, you change the configuration of everything. Enzymes denatured, proteins change shape, DNA will not encode molecules that must encode.
In other words, if the electromagnetic force had changed, because this force had penetrated a large, fourth dimensional dimension that had reached the scale of angstraam or so, the bodies of people would instantly curl up and they would die.
But not all is lost. There are many models, mostly inspired by string theory, where these forces, electromagnetic and nuclear, are limited to three dimensions. Then only gravity can move through the fourth dimension. And this means that when the fourth dimension appeared and increased in size (and hence in its effects), gravity began to “flow” into this additional dimension. And, consequently, objects will experience less attraction than we are used to.
This would lead to a number of strange signs.
First asteroids – which rotate, clinging tightly together, – will crumble, as gravity will not be enough to keep these rocks and stones. Comets, coming close to the Sun, will evaporate faster and acquire impressive tails. And if the fourth dimension grows sufficiently large, gravitational forces on Earth will seriously decrease, and our planet will become larger, especially along the equator.
People living at the poles will feel how gravity has decreased, and people living near the equator risk being thrown out into space. At the macro level, the famous law of gravitation of Newton – the law of inverse squares – will suddenly become the law of inverse cubes, so that the force of gravity will significantly weaken with increasing distance.
If the measurement increased to the size of the distance from the Earth to the Sun, in fact everything in our solar system would become unconnected. If it lasted more than a few days a year – even if gravity returned to normal in 50 weeks – our solar system would completely collapse in just a hundred years.
We would have periods on Earth when we would not only be able to move in the “complementary” direction through spaces, in addition to going back and forth, up and down, right and left, but also when the properties of gravity would vary greatly and not for the better . Although competitions with high jump and length would be surprising, the consequences for our stable system would be apocalyptic.
The additional measurement, while it remains on a sufficiently small scale, will be almost imperceptible, especially if electromagnetism remains limited to our three dimensions. But let the fourth dimensional dimension grow big enough so that we can move through it … And then the planet itself, the stars, galaxies and the whole Universe will be threatened. Even a very short time in this dimension will not be anything. Be careful in your desires.