Gardner’s Rhizanthella: a strange orchid that grows underground

Rhizanthella gardneri is a unique and interesting plant species belonging to the Orchidaceae family. Known as the western subterranean orchid or simply subterranean orchid, it is endemic to Western Australia. The distinctive feature of this plant is its subterranean lifestyle, as it spends its entire life cycle underground.

Appearance and structure:

Rhizanthella gardneri has a highly specialized structure that allows it to thrive in an underground habitat. The plant consists of a fleshy tuberous rhizome that serves as the main storage organ. The rhizome is usually spherical or oval in shape and can be up to 10 cm in diameter. It is covered with a thin layer of brownish scales that protect the plant from drying out and physical damage.


Unlike most orchids, Rhizanthella gardneri does not use photosynthesis for energy. Instead, the plant obtains nutrients through a unique symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi colonize the plant’s rhizome and supply it with organic matter derived from decaying plant material in the soil.

The reproductive strategy of Rhizanthella gardneri is also quite unusual. The plant produces small, inconspicuous flowers that are devoid of pigmentation and do not open. The flowers are self-pollinating, that is, they are capable of fertilizing themselves without the aid of external pollinators. This adaptation ensures successful reproduction even in the absence of above-ground peduncles.

Habitat and distribution:

The Western Subterranean Orchid is found exclusively in the south-western region of Western Australia, where it inhabits sandy soils in scrub and woodland thickets. It prefers areas with a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

Because of its underground lifestyle, Rhizanthella gardneri is difficult to detect and study in the wild. It often remains hidden underground, with only the flower stalks occasionally appearing on the surface. The exact distribution and population size of this species is therefore not well documented.

Conservation Status:

Rhizanthella gardneri is classified as a rare and endangered species. Its limited distribution and special habitat requirements make this species particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and disturbance. Factors such as land clearing, urbanization, and changing fire regimes pose significant threats to its survival.

Efforts are underway to conserve this unique orchid species. Some protected areas in Western Australia, such as national parks and reserves, provide a safe haven for Rhizanthella garda

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