Hydrothermal vents: sources of life on Earth

Hydrothermal vents are places where hot solutions rich in various chemical compounds flow from the Earth’s interior at the bottom of an ocean or lake. It is here, in these unusual conditions, that the potential answer to the question of the origin of life on Earth lies.

According to the hydrothermal hypothesis of the origin of life, such springs are an ideal environment for the synthesis of complex organic compounds. Hot solutions contain metals, methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen (H2), which are the main components of vital molecules. In addition, clay forms at the bottom of hydrothermal vents, which is an ideal catalyst for chemical reactions.

Biodiversity near hydrothermal vents is much higher than on the surrounding seabed. Here the processes of evolution and development of life occur several orders of magnitude faster. However, the ecosystem of hydrothermal vents differs from most terrestrial natural communities.

Hydrothermal systems are based on bacteria that are able to do without sunlight. They convert inorganic matter into organic matter through the process of chemosynthesis. The starting material for chemosynthesis is sulfur compounds, mainly hydrogen sulfide, contained in geothermal waters. Colonies of chemosynthetic bacteria create thick bacterial mats around hydrothermal vents, which serve as a nutrient substrate for larger organisms.

Studies of hydrothermal vents

The study of hydrothermal vents is an active area of research. Scientists around the world are seeking to understand what processes and mechanisms led to the emergence of life on Earth and whether similar conditions could exist on other planets.

One of the most famous hydrothermal vents is the Smoker Underwater Volcano in the Pacific Ocean. Studies of this spring have allowed scientists to discover unique organisms that have adapted to life in extreme conditions. In particular, bacteria have been found capable of surviving at temperatures up to 120 degrees Celsius and pressures higher than those at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

Opinion of the expert

James Cameron, PhD in biology, believes that hydrothermal vents may be the key to understanding the origin of life. He argues that this is where conditions close to those that existed in the early stages of Earth’s development are located. Cameron also notes that studying hydrothermal vents will help us understand what conditions might be on other planets and contribute to the search for life in the universe.


Hydrothermal vents are unique places where various organisms that can survive under extreme conditions co-exist. Studying these springs helps scientists better understand the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth and may provide key clues about the possibility of life on other planets.

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