Cancer is a devastating diagnosis, a disease that affects people of all ages. However, recent studies have revealed an alarming increase in cancer incidence among young adults, and epidemiologists are eager to unravel this mystery. While researchers have long noticed this alarming trend, it is crucial to continually analyze the data to understand how the situation has evolved over the years.
A comprehensive analysis last year of global cancer data over three decades found that since the 1990s, there has been an increase in the prevalence of cancer among adults under the age of 50. Benjamin Koh, a physician scientist at the National University of Singapore, and his colleagues sought to explore this issue further by focusing on recent changes in the United States. Their findings are consistent with changes observed internationally.
The distinctive nature of cancer in young adults
Research has shown that cancers affecting young adults differ from those affecting older adults in terms of the organs involved, which consequently affects treatment options. It is therefore crucial to identify the specific types of cancer affecting different age groups and understand their impact.
Significance of population-specific data
While global trends provide valuable insights, population-specific data are very important for developing health policy and prioritizing research funding. Age remains the most significant risk factor for cancer due to the accumulation of genetic mutations. However, the recent surge in cancer incidence among younger age groups requires further investigation.
Possible contributing factors are
A variety of factors, especially in the United States, may be contributing to the increase in cancer incidence among young adults. These include changes in diet, lifestyle, and sleep patterns, increased incidence of obesity, antibiotic use, and air pollution. Determining the exact impact of each factor is difficult because of the simultaneous implementation of cancer screening and vaccination programs.
Disclosing alarming trends
Although cancer screening programs detect more cases of the disease, which may lead to earlier diagnosis, and vaccination programs have been successful in preventing some cancers, an international 2022 review suggests that the increase in early cancers outweighs the impact of these initiatives. In addition, cancer screening programs rarely reach individuals younger than 50 years of age.
A comprehensive analysis of cancer incidence rates in the United States
A recent study by Koch and colleagues did not account for the impact of cancer screening and vaccination programs. However, it does offer a comprehensive review of cancer incidence rates among those under 50 years of age in the U.S. between 2010 and 2019. By analyzing existing data sources, the researchers identified 562,145 young adults from 17 linked registries recording new cancer diagnoses in different regions of the country. These data were used to estimate population-wide incidence rates during the decade in question.
The overall incidence of cancer in those under 50 years of age has increased, resulting in an additional three cases per 100,000 people in 2019 compared to 2010. However, a more detailed analysis of specific age groups and cancer types reveals even more alarming trends and potential risk factors.
Gastrointestinal cancer: Fastest growing incidence rates
As Koch and colleagues note in their published paper, among all early cancers, gastrointestinal cancers have the fastest rising incidence rates. Notably, colon cancer was the most common form of gastrointestinal cancer among young adults in 2019. In addition, there was a spike in the incidence of appendix, bile duct, and pancreatic cancers during the decade under review.
“This trend is deeply worrying and requires immediate attention from researchers, policy makers and health professionals. We need to identify the major risk factors and develop targeted interventions to effectively prevent and treat these cancers.”
The rising incidence of cancer among young people has become a pressing public health concern. To combat this growing burden, the mystery behind the dramatic increase in cancer cases must be unraveled and contributing factors identified. Comprehensive analyses, such as the recent study by Koch and colleagues, will allow scientists to shed light on the specific cancers affecting young people and develop strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment.