Switching to plant-based foods is not only healthy, but also crucial for mitigating climate change. However, one of the main problems with switching to meat alternatives is their dry and desiccated texture when consumed. Fortunately, a team of scientists led by the University of Leeds have recently made a groundbreaking discovery that could revolutionize the feel of plant-based proteins.
The researchers have found a way to turn the dry and coarse texture of plant proteins into a juicy and fat-like consistency by simply adding water. This revolutionary technique, known as microgel formation, involves immersing plant proteins in water and heating them. The heat changes the structure of the protein molecules, causing them to clump together to form a gel-like network that holds water.
When homogenized, this gel breaks down into tiny particles called microgels. These microgels are invisible to the naked eye, but release water under pressure, such as during eating. As a result, the texture of the vegetable proteins becomes similar to that of cream, providing the necessary moisturization and succulence in the mouth.
Professor Anvesha Sarkar, senior author of the study and Professor in the Department of Colloids and Surfaces at Leeds, explains, “We turned dry plant protein into hydrated protein by using the plant protein to form a web that holds water around the plant protein. This gives much-needed hydration and a juicy mouth feel.” Plant protein-based protein microgels can be created without the use of any additional chemicals or agents using a technology that is widely available and currently used in the food industry. The key ingredient is water.”
This discovery has major implications for the consumer appeal of plant-based proteins. The inherent dryness of plant proteins has long been an obstacle to their widespread availability. However, thanks to the new approach, scientists are optimistic that consumer interest in plant proteins will be revitalized. This could lead to a reduced dependence on animal proteins, which is essential for achieving global goals to combat climate change.
After all, more than half of the 18 billion tons of annual CO2 equivalent emissions from food production come from raising and processing animals. By offering a solution to the problem of dryness, these protein microgels have the potential to create a new generation of healthy, palatable and sustainable foods.
The scientists used atomic force microscopy to confirm their findings. This method allowed them to visualize the protein microgels at the molecular level. The resulting images showed that the microgels have a spherical shape and are spaced apart, which confirms the researchers’ theoretical predictions.
“Getting the images using the atomic force microscope was a very exciting moment for us,” says Sarkar. “Visualization showed that the protein microgels were almost spherical, not aggregated or sticking together. We saw individually arranged plant protein microgels. Our theoretical studies said this is what would happen, but nothing can compare to real-world observation.”
This groundbreaking research has the potential to transform the plant-based food industry and pave the way for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future. By improving the texture of plant-based proteins, scientists are making them more appealing and accessible to consumers, ultimately helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the planet healthier.