The NASA aerospace agency is not the single space agency having the plans to Mars. Several other quotients and the state companies worldwide too want “to impose the hands” on the Red planet. It would absolutely be possible to write, of course, about all similar ideas, however most of them or are too far from reality, or are smaller projects. Today very briefly we will sort what space missions to Mars expect us in the next one or two decades.
Programs of NASA
With confirmation of selection of the necessary budget by the American congress for exercise of the piloted missions to Mars, the space agency NASA began to sort seriously the questions bound to the plan of visit of our closest space neighbor. The agency is faced by a set of questions and tasks which need to be solved before going to Mars. And one of the major is modernization and carrying out tests of technologies of life support systems, and also completion of the project of construction of Space Launch System (SLS) – the versatile superheavy carrier rocket which is going to be used for flights to the Moon and Mars. The first test start of system is planned to be carried out at the end of 2018.
Before sending people to Mars NASA plans to start some more pilotless space missions. InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) which start within the Discovery program is planned for 2018 will be the first among them. The problem of a mission will consist in delivery to Mars of the research landing module for studying of interior and structure of the Red planet.
Speaking about landing devices, you should not forget also plans of NASA for disembarkation of the new mars rover to the Red planet in 2020. New rover if to trust the American aerospace agency, “will be equipped with the screenned-out advanced scientific equipment for realization of unprecedented scientific tasks”.
Mission ExoMars: part second
After unsuccessful landing of the module within the first part of a space mission ExoMars earlier this year, the European Space Agency (ESA) did not lose desire for realization of the second part of this program. In 2020 the ESA is going to put for Mars the new mars rover equipped with a drill and various scientific tools which will help scientists to find out a structure of the Red planet and also to carry out ekzobiologichesky and geochemical analyses.
The Russian space agency “Roskosmos”, as well as in the first part of a mission, acts as the partner of the European Space Agency. Russia will be responsible for mission “muscles”: the carrier rocket “Proton-M” with the accelerating Briz-M block which will send the mars rover to the Red planet. In addition, the Russian side will provide two scientific devices of the mars rover — ISEM and ADRON-MR — which will become a part of the scientific Pasteur equipment of rover.
Besides, the nominal exemplar of the Russian earth-based station for reception of information from mission devices “ExoMars-2016” developed in experimental design bureau of MEI will be put into operation at the end of 2017. Two earth-based stations of reception of information with 64-meter antennas will also enter a receiving complex: TNA-1500 and TNA-1500K.
Martian colony of SpaceX
Since the moment of foundation of the SpaceX company in 2002 her executive director Elon Musk expressed desire: within the next 50-100 years to turn mankind into an interplanetary look and to construct colony on Mars.
For realization of this idea the company at the moment is engaged in creation of the carrier rocket Interplanetary Transport System (ITS) – the spaceship capable to lift and deliver to the Red planet of the first colonists. The idea at first sight can seem too ambitious. So it also is. However, fortunately, desire of the company is not limited to only one desire. SpaceX is not idle and carries out the fissile preparation for the first pilotless mission to Mars in 2018, with prospect of the first piloted mission in 2025.
The Mars One project is frozen?
SpaceX is not the single private space company wishing to construct colony on Mars. The Netherlands non-profit organization Mars One wants to become the first-ever company which established the first constant Martian colony on the Red planet.
The plan is going to be broken into several parts. In 2020, 2022 and 2024 it is planned to send to Mars of robots researchers and builders, with the prospect of start of the piloted mission in 2026 and disembarkation of the person to the Red planet in 2027. Recently the program faced some problems threatening failure several robotic missions. At the same time Mars One continues selection of candidates for a role of the first colonists and conducts development of space space suits.
Decided to share Boeing
Quite recently the interest to join a space race for Mars the American corporation Boeing expressed. The veteran samoleto-and rocket production is going to beat the newcomer of SpaceX in the program for development of the Red planet and at the moment conducts cooperation with NASA aerospace agency over the program for delivery of astronauts aboard the International Space Station.
Despite the absence from Boeing of some concrete details concerning a mission to Mars many remembered words of her executive director Dennis Mulenberg:
“I am convinced that the first person who will step into the surface of Mars will be brought by means of the rocket of the Boeing company there”.
Russia off side. Bye
Till 2015 Russia planned to send to the satellite of Mars – to Phobos – the pilotless device. Unfortunately, start which took place in 2011 was unsuccessful. Despite successful start, the Phobos soil space probe did not manage to leave low Earth orbit. According to the available information, restart of a mission “Phobos soil” is planned to be carried out in 2020-2021.
Nevertheless, though at the total absence of approximate dates, Russia expressed too the desire to carry out the piloted mission to Mars in the first half of the 21st century. At the moment the federal agency “Roskosmos” conducts cooperation with the European Space Agency over a mission “ExoMars”. Imitation of the Martian flight under the name “Mars-500”, but on it so far all was carried out.